Senin, 30 Juli 2007


1Electrical installations and usageShort CircuitingElectrocution or fireUse hand gloves & other PPE
Don’t lay wires under carpets , mats or door ways
Employ licensed electricians to carry out electrical installation
Use one socket for one appliance.
Ensure usage of only fully insulated, undamaged wires or cables.
Don’t place bare wire ends in a socket
Ensure earthing of equipments
Do not use damaged cords and avoid temporary connections
Provide all connections through ELCB
Protect electrical cables / equipments from water and naked flames.
Check all connections before energizing.
Over loading of Electrical systemBursting of system leading to fireDisplay voltage and current ratings prominently with Danger signs.
Ensure approved cable size, voltage grade and type
Switch of the electrical utilities when not in use.
Do not allow unauthorized connections.
Ensure proper grid wise distribution of power.
Improper laying of overhead under ground transmission lines / cablesCan cause electrocution and prove fatalDo not lay unamoured cable directly on ground, wall, top of trees. Maintain at least 3 meter distance from HT cables . All temporary cables should be laid at least 750 mm below ground on 100 mm fine sand overlaying by brick soling.
Proper sleeves should be provided at road crossings.
Provide cable route markers indicating the type and depth of cables at intervals not exceeding 30 m and at the diversions termination.
2Working at HeightsPerson can fall downMay sustain severe injuries or prove fatalProvide guard rails / barricades at the work place
Use PPE like safety belts, full body harness, with two life lines , helmets , safety shoes etc.
Obtain work permit before starting the work at height above 2 meters.
Fall arrestor systems like safety nets must be installed
Provide proper working space ( min 0.6 m x 0.6 m)
Tie / weld working platform with fixed support.
Avoid moments on beams.
May hit the scrap / material stacked at the ground or in betweenKeep the work place neat and clean
Remove the scrap immediately
Material can fall downMay hit the workers working at lower levels & prove fatalSame as above plus
Barricade the area at ground level
Do not throw or drop materials or equipment from height.
All tools to be carried in a tool kit bag.
Remove scraps from the planks.
Ensure wearing of helmet by the workers at low level
3Confined SpacesSuffocationUnconsciousness / deathUse respiratory devices
Avoid over crowding inside a confined space
Provide exhaust fans / ventilation
Do not use loose clothes.
Keep a stand by person outside the vessel
Provide alarm bell to the person inside the confined space.
Check for reasons of hydro carbons O2 level, toxic gases
Obtain permit before entering the confined space
All incoming lines to the tank should be emptied and blank
Presence of foul smell and toxic substancesInhalation can pose threat to lifeSame as above plus Check for compounds before entering a confined space
Keep one person outside the confined space for continuing monitoring and for extending help in case of emergency.
Ignition / flame can cause firePerson may sustain burr injuries or explosion may occurKeep fire extinguishers handy
Remove surplus material and scrap immediately
Do not smoke inside a confined space
Do not allow gas cylinders inside a confined space
Use low voltage (24 V) explosion proof lamps for lighting
Use pneumatic tools or electric tools with max. 24 V (explosion proof)
Remove all equipments at the end of the day.
4RadiographyIonizing / radiation from sourceRadiation may cause diseases like cancer , skin irritation , dermatitis etcFollow safety guidelines from BARC before commencement of job.
Employ authorized and trained person with requisite qualifications.
Barricade the area and install radiation warning symbol.
Restrict the entry of unauthorized persons.
Wear appropriate PPE and film badges issued by BARC.
Transportation and storage of radiography sourceSame as aboveNever touch or handle radiography source with hands.
Store radiography source inside approved pit in an exclusive isolated storage room with lock and key arrangement.
Radiography source shall never be carried in a passenger bus or an passenger compartment of train.
BARC should be informed before source movement.
Loss of radioisotopeSame as aboveTry to locate with the help of survey meter and inform to BARC
5Hand Power ToolsUnguarded moving parts like grinding wheels, drill bits.It may injure the operator. Wheel may get detached,. And hit the passer might by flying missiles causing serious injury.Use proper guard. Ensure tightening mechanism of the tool.
Supply of power without earthingElectrocutionAlways use three pin plug. Ensure good earthing.
Damage toolsCan cause injury.Always use tested & verified tools.
6Lifting Activities.Failure of load lifting & moving equipmentCan cause accident & proved to be fatalCheck periodically oil, brakes, gears, Horns , and tyre pressure of all moving machinery, Check quality, size & condition of all chained pulley blocks, sleeves, Sling, U clamps, D shackle , wire ropes, etc. Allow crane to move only on hard firm and leveled ground . Allow lifting sling as short as possible.
Overloading of Lifting equipments.Same as aboveSafe Lifting capacity of derricks, and winches should be ascertained, Maximum SWL shall marked on all lifting equipments. Check the weight of columns & other heavy items painted on them and accordingly design above the angle of erection. Allow only trained operators and riggers during crane operations.
Overhead Electrical wiresCan cause electrocution & fire. Do not allow boom or the other part of the crane to come within the three meter reach of overhead HT cables.
Hook & load being lifted shall be preferably remained in full visibility.

Kamis, 19 Juli 2007

Type of disposable particulate respirator

Select a type of disposable particulate respirator (filtering facepiece) to view a list of manufacturers/suppliers and model numbers:




Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.


Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.


Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.


Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.


Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.


Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.


Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.


Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.


Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.

* No NIOSH approvals are held by this type of disposable particulate respirator.

Guide to the PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

What is PPE?

PPE is defined in the Regulations as ‘all equipment (including clothing affording protection against the weather) which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work and which protects him against one or more risks to his health or safety’, eg safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear and safety harnesses.

Hearing protection and respiratory protective equipment provided for most work situations are not covered by these Regulations because other regulations apply to them. However, these items need to be compatible with any other PPE provided.

Cycle helmets or crash helmets worn by employees on the roads are not covered by the Regulations. Motorcycle helmets are legally required for motorcyclists under road traffic legislation.

What do the Regulations require?

The main requirement of the PPE at Work Regulations 1992 is that personal protective equipment is to be supplied and used at work wherever there are risks to health and safety that cannot be adequately controlled in other ways.

The Regulations also require that PPE:

  • is properly assessed before use to ensure it is suitable;
  • is maintained and stored properly;
  • is provided with instructions on how to use it safely; and
  • is used correctly by employees.

Can I charge for providing PPE?

An employer cannot ask for money from an employee for PPE, whether it is returnable or not. This includes agency workers if they are legally regarded as your employees. If employment has been terminated and the employee keeps the PPE without the employer’s permission, then, as long as it has been made clear in the contract of employment, the employer may be able to deduct the cost of the replacement from any wages owed.

Health and Safety


Assessing suitable PPE

To allow the right type of PPE to be chosen, carefully consider the different hazards in the workplace. This will enable you to assess which types of PPE are suitable to protect against the hazard and for the job to be done.

Ask your supplier for advice on the different types of PPE available and how suitable they are for different tasks. It may be necessary in a few particularly difficult cases to obtain advice from specialist sources and from the PPE manufacturer. Another useful source of information is the British Safety Industry Federation


Consider the following when assessing whether PPE is suitable:

  • Is it appropriate for the risks involved and the conditions at the place where exposure to the risk may occur? For example, eye protection designed for providing protection against agricultural pesticides will not offer adequate face protection for someone using an angle grinder to cut steel or stone.
  • Does it prevent or adequately control the risks involved without increasing the overall level of risk?
  • Can it be adjusted to fit the wearer correctly?
  • Has the state of health of those who will be wearing it been taken into account?
  • What are the needs of the job and the demands it places on the wearer? For example, the length of time the PPE needs to be worn, the physical effort required to do the job and the requirements for visibility and communication.
  • If more than one item of PPE is being worn, are they compatible? For example, does a particular type of respirator make it difficult to get eye protection to fit properly?

The hazards and types of PPE


Hazards: chemical or metal splash, dust, projectiles, gas and vapour, radiation.

Options: safety spectacles, goggles, faceshields, visors.


Hazards: impact from falling or flying objects, risk of head bumping, hair entanglement.

Options: a range of helmets and bump caps.


Hazards: dust, vapour, gas, oxygen-deficient atmospheres.

Options: disposable filtering facepiece or respirator, half- or full-face respirators, air-fed helmets, breathing apparatus.

Protecting the body

Hazards: temperature extremes, adverse weather, chemical or metal splash, spray from pressure leaks or spray guns, impact or penetration, contaminated dust, excessive wear or entanglement of own clothing.

Options: conventional or disposable overalls, boiler suits, specialist protective clothing, eg chain-mail aprons, high-visibility clothing.

Hands and arms

Hazards: abrasion, temperature extremes, cuts and punctures, impact, chemicals, electric shock, skin infection, disease or contamination.

Options: gloves, gauntlets, mitts, wristcuffs, armlets.

Feet and legs

Hazards: wet, electrostatic build-up, slipping, cuts and punctures, falling objects, metal and chemical splash, abrasion.

Options: safety boots and shoes with protective toe caps and penetration-resistant mid-sole, gaiters, leggings, spats.


  • Make sure anyone using PPE is aware of why it is needed, when it is to be used, repaired or replaced and its limitations.
  • Train and instruct people how to use it properly and make sure they are doing this.
  • Because PPE is the last resort after other methods of protection have been considered, it is important that users wear it all the time they are exposed to the risk. Never allow exemptions for those jobs which take ‘just a few minutes’.
  • Check regularly that PPE is being used and investigate fully any reasons why it is not. Safety signs can be useful reminders to wear PPE.


Make sure equipment is:

  • well looked after and properly stored when it is not being used, for example in a dry, clean cupboard, or in the case of smaller items, such as eye protection, in a box or case;
  • kept clean and in good repair - follow the manufacturer’s maintenance schedule (including recommended replacement periods and shelf lives). Simple maintenance can be carried out by the trained wearer, but more intricate repairs should only be done by specialists.

Make sure suitable replacement PPE is always readily available.

CE marking (for Europe)

Ensure any PPE you buy is ‘CE’ marked and complies with the requirements of the Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002. The CE marking signifies that the

PPE satisfies certain basic safety requirements and in some cases will have been tested and certified by an independent body.

Key points to remember

Are there ways (other than PPE) in which the risk can be adequately controlled, eg engineering controls? If not, check that:

  • PPE is provided;
  • it offers adequate protection for its intended use;
  • those using it are adequately trained in its safe use;
  • it is properly maintained and any defects are reported;
  • it is returned to its proper storage after use.
source: HSE

Rabu, 18 Juli 2007

Six element of Ergonomics program

6 Langkah dalam melaksanakan Program Ergonomi ditempat Kerja adalah

  1. Management Commitment

Management sebagai pengambil keputusan harus memiliki komitmen dalam mendukung terlaksananya program Ergonomi dengan menyediakan segala kebutuhan dalam menerapkan program tersebut. Anda juga harus dapat menyakinkan ke managemen tentang betapa pentingnya program ini dilakukan.

Contoh: Kebijakan Perusahaan; Membuat Prosedur; Membuat proposal tentang program ergonomi.

  1. Hazard Information & Reporting

Anda harus membuat system yang mempermudah pekerja dalam pelaporkan adanya tanda atau gejala MSD, ini berguna untuk melakukan respon yang tepat dan cepat.

Contoh: Pengembangan sistem database antara Medical Operator (RS/Clinic Perusahaan dengan SHE personal (Industrial Hygiene). Beberapa software yang bisa dipergunakan adalah Microsoft Access; Medgate; Ellipse; dsb

  1. Assessment

Setelah informasi mengenai MSD didapat/dilaporkan maka selanjutnya dilakukan analisa mengenai permasalahan tersebut untuk mengetahui faktor resiko ergonomi yang dapat menimbulkan terjadinya MSD. Ini bisa dilakukan dengan membuat hierarki control

Contoh: dengan melakukan JHA (Job Hazard Analysis)

Form JHA

Langkah Kerja

Kemungkinan Bahaya / Deskripsi Event

Tingkat Resiko

Antisipasi / Tindakan Perbaikan

  1. Education

Selain kita membuat materi training secara general (sesuai dengan bahaya umum di suatu lokasi kerja/perusahaan) diperlukan juga “Area Specific Hazard Training” maksudnya dengan memberikan materi yang lebih detail kepada pekerja. (misalnya yang di area kerjanya memiliki resiko terjadinya MSD dilakukan training ergonomic)

Contoh: Annual refresher training untuk semua pekerja, Spesific hazard Training untuk pekerja diarea tertentu, dsb

  1. MSD Management

Anda harus merespon segera terhadap kondisi pekerja yang beresiko MSD untuk mencegah kondisi mereka semakin buruk. Berikan mereka akses yang mudah ke “health care professional” untuk melakukan konsultasi dan mendapatkan rekomendasi yang tepat.

Contoh: Adanya dokter perusahan (Occupational Health Doctor), harus dipastikan bahwa dokter yang bersangkutan sudah berpengalaman dalam permasalahan kesehatan di lingkungan kerja, permasalahan ini pernah dialami penulis ketika dokter OH-nya sangat kesulitan memberikan rekomendasi karena kurangnya informasi tentang kesehatan kerja.

  1. Program Evaluation.

Perlunya dilakukan evaluasi secara periodik terhadap program ergonomik paling sedikit 3 tahun sekali. Ini berguna untuk menyakinkan bahwa program yang telah dibuat sesuai dengan kebutuhan perkembangan perusahaan.

Contoh: Review Prosedur secara berkala

*MSD =Musculoskeletal Disorder