|SR NO||CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY||ASSOCIATED HAZARDS||EFFECT OF HAZARDS||PREVENTIVE MEASURES / RECOMMENDATIONS|
|1||Electrical installations and usage||Short Circuiting||Electrocution or fire||Use hand gloves & other PPE|
|Don’t lay wires under carpets , mats or door ways|
|Employ licensed electricians to carry out electrical installation|
|Use one socket for one appliance.|
|Ensure usage of only fully insulated, undamaged wires or cables.|
|Don’t place bare wire ends in a socket|
|Ensure earthing of equipments|
|Do not use damaged cords and avoid temporary connections|
|Provide all connections through ELCB|
|Protect electrical cables / equipments from water and naked flames.|
|Check all connections before energizing.|
|Over loading of Electrical system||Bursting of system leading to fire||Display voltage and current ratings prominently with Danger signs.|
|Ensure approved cable size, voltage grade and type|
|Switch of the electrical utilities when not in use.|
|Do not allow unauthorized connections.|
|Ensure proper grid wise distribution of power.|
|Improper laying of overhead under ground transmission lines / cables||Can cause electrocution and prove fatal||Do not lay unamoured cable directly on ground, wall, top of trees. Maintain at least 3 meter distance from HT cables . All temporary cables should be laid at least 750 mm below ground on 100 mm fine sand overlaying by brick soling.|
|Proper sleeves should be provided at road crossings.|
|Provide cable route markers indicating the type and depth of cables at intervals not exceeding 30 m and at the diversions termination.|
|2||Working at Heights||Person can fall down||May sustain severe injuries or prove fatal||Provide guard rails / barricades at the work place|
|Use PPE like safety belts, full body harness, with two life lines , helmets , safety shoes etc.|
|Obtain work permit before starting the work at height above 2 meters.|
|Fall arrestor systems like safety nets must be installed|
|Provide proper working space ( min 0.6 m x 0.6 m)|
|Tie / weld working platform with fixed support.|
|Avoid moments on beams.|
|May hit the scrap / material stacked at the ground or in between||Keep the work place neat and clean|
|Remove the scrap immediately|
|Material can fall down||May hit the workers working at lower levels & prove fatal||Same as above plus|
|Barricade the area at ground level|
|Do not throw or drop materials or equipment from height.|
|All tools to be carried in a tool kit bag.|
|Remove scraps from the planks.|
|Ensure wearing of helmet by the workers at low level|
|3||Confined Spaces||Suffocation||Unconsciousness / death||Use respiratory devices|
|Avoid over crowding inside a confined space|
|Provide exhaust fans / ventilation|
|Do not use loose clothes.|
|Keep a stand by person outside the vessel|
|Provide alarm bell to the person inside the confined space.|
|Check for reasons of hydro carbons O2 level, toxic gases|
|Obtain permit before entering the confined space|
|All incoming lines to the tank should be emptied and blank|
|Presence of foul smell and toxic substances||Inhalation can pose threat to life||Same as above plus Check for compounds before entering a confined space|
|Keep one person outside the confined space for continuing monitoring and for extending help in case of emergency.|
|Ignition / flame can cause fire||Person may sustain burr injuries or explosion may occur||Keep fire extinguishers handy|
|Remove surplus material and scrap immediately|
|Do not smoke inside a confined space|
|Do not allow gas cylinders inside a confined space|
|Use low voltage (24 V) explosion proof lamps for lighting|
|Use pneumatic tools or electric tools with max. 24 V (explosion proof)|
|Remove all equipments at the end of the day.|
|4||Radiography||Ionizing / radiation from source||Radiation may cause diseases like cancer , skin irritation , dermatitis etc||Follow safety guidelines from BARC before commencement of job.|
|Employ authorized and trained person with requisite qualifications.|
|Barricade the area and install radiation warning symbol.|
|Restrict the entry of unauthorized persons.|
|Wear appropriate PPE and film badges issued by BARC.|
|Transportation and storage of radiography source||Same as above||Never touch or handle radiography source with hands.|
|Store radiography source inside approved pit in an exclusive isolated storage room with lock and key arrangement.|
|Radiography source shall never be carried in a passenger bus or an passenger compartment of train.|
|BARC should be informed before source movement.|
|Loss of radioisotope||Same as above||Try to locate with the help of survey meter and inform to BARC|
|5||Hand Power Tools||Unguarded moving parts like grinding wheels, drill bits.||It may injure the operator. Wheel may get detached,. And hit the passer might by flying missiles causing serious injury.||Use proper guard. Ensure tightening mechanism of the tool.|
|Supply of power without earthing||Electrocution||Always use three pin plug. Ensure good earthing.|
|Damage tools||Can cause injury.||Always use tested & verified tools.|
|6||Lifting Activities.||Failure of load lifting & moving equipment||Can cause accident & proved to be fatal||Check periodically oil, brakes, gears, Horns , and tyre pressure of all moving machinery, Check quality, size & condition of all chained pulley blocks, sleeves, Sling, U clamps, D shackle , wire ropes, etc. Allow crane to move only on hard firm and leveled ground . Allow lifting sling as short as possible.|
|Overloading of Lifting equipments.||Same as above||Safe Lifting capacity of derricks, and winches should be ascertained, Maximum SWL shall marked on all lifting equipments. Check the weight of columns & other heavy items painted on them and accordingly design above the angle of erection. Allow only trained operators and riggers during crane operations.|
|Overhead Electrical wires||Can cause electrocution & fire.||Do not allow boom or the other part of the crane to come within the three meter reach of overhead HT cables.|
|Hook & load being lifted shall be preferably remained in full visibility.|
Senin, 30 Juli 2007
Kamis, 19 Juli 2007
Select a type of disposable particulate respirator (filtering facepiece) to view a list of manufacturers/suppliers and model numbers:
Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.
Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.
Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.
Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.
Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.
Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.
Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.
Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.
Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.
* No NIOSH approvals are held by this type of disposable particulate respirator.
What is PPE?
PPE is defined in the Regulations as ‘all equipment (including clothing affording protection against the weather) which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work and which protects him against one or more risks to his health or safety’, eg safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear and safety harnesses.
Hearing protection and respiratory protective equipment provided for most work situations are not covered by these Regulations because other regulations apply to them. However, these items need to be compatible with any other PPE provided.
Cycle helmets or crash helmets worn by employees on the roads are not covered by the Regulations. Motorcycle helmets are legally required for motorcyclists under road traffic legislation.
What do the Regulations require?
The main requirement of the PPE at Work Regulations 1992 is that personal protective equipment is to be supplied and used at work wherever there are risks to health and safety that cannot be adequately controlled in other ways.
The Regulations also require that PPE:
- is properly assessed before use to ensure it is suitable;
- is maintained and stored properly;
- is provided with instructions on how to use it safely; and
- is used correctly by employees.
Can I charge for providing PPE?
An employer cannot ask for money from an employee for PPE, whether it is returnable or not. This includes agency workers if they are legally regarded as your employees. If employment has been terminated and the employee keeps the PPE without the employer’s permission, then, as long as it has been made clear in the contract of employment, the employer may be able to deduct the cost of the replacement from any wages owed.
Health and Safety
Assessing suitable PPE
To allow the right type of PPE to be chosen, carefully consider the different hazards in the workplace. This will enable you to assess which types of PPE are suitable to protect against the hazard and for the job to be done.
Ask your supplier for advice on the different types of PPE available and how suitable they are for different tasks. It may be necessary in a few particularly difficult cases to obtain advice from specialist sources and from the PPE manufacturer. Another useful source of information is the British Safety Industry Federation
Consider the following when assessing whether PPE is suitable:
- Is it appropriate for the risks involved and the conditions at the place where exposure to the risk may occur? For example, eye protection designed for providing protection against agricultural pesticides will not offer adequate face protection for someone using an angle grinder to cut steel or stone.
- Does it prevent or adequately control the risks involved without increasing the overall level of risk?
- Can it be adjusted to fit the wearer correctly?
- Has the state of health of those who will be wearing it been taken into account?
- What are the needs of the job and the demands it places on the wearer? For example, the length of time the PPE needs to be worn, the physical effort required to do the job and the requirements for visibility and communication.
- If more than one item of PPE is being worn, are they compatible? For example, does a particular type of respirator make it difficult to get eye protection to fit properly?
The hazards and types of PPE
Hazards: chemical or metal splash, dust, projectiles, gas and vapour, radiation.
Options: safety spectacles, goggles, faceshields, visors.
Hazards: impact from falling or flying objects, risk of head bumping, hair entanglement.
Options: a range of helmets and bump caps.
Hazards: dust, vapour, gas, oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Options: disposable filtering facepiece or respirator, half- or full-face respirators, air-fed helmets, breathing apparatus.
Protecting the body
Hazards: temperature extremes, adverse weather, chemical or metal splash, spray from pressure leaks or spray guns, impact or penetration, contaminated dust, excessive wear or entanglement of own clothing.
Options: conventional or disposable overalls, boiler suits, specialist protective clothing, eg chain-mail aprons, high-visibility clothing.
Hands and arms
Hazards: abrasion, temperature extremes, cuts and punctures, impact, chemicals, electric shock, skin infection, disease or contamination.
Options: gloves, gauntlets, mitts, wristcuffs, armlets.
Feet and legs
Hazards: wet, electrostatic build-up, slipping, cuts and punctures, falling objects, metal and chemical splash, abrasion.
Options: safety boots and shoes with protective toe caps and penetration-resistant mid-sole, gaiters, leggings, spats.
- Make sure anyone using PPE is aware of why it is needed, when it is to be used, repaired or replaced and its limitations.
- Train and instruct people how to use it properly and make sure they are doing this.
- Because PPE is the last resort after other methods of protection have been considered, it is important that users wear it all the time they are exposed to the risk. Never allow exemptions for those jobs which take ‘just a few minutes’.
- Check regularly that PPE is being used and investigate fully any reasons why it is not. Safety signs can be useful reminders to wear PPE.
Make sure equipment is:
- well looked after and properly stored when it is not being used, for example in a dry, clean cupboard, or in the case of smaller items, such as eye protection, in a box or case;
- kept clean and in good repair - follow the manufacturer’s maintenance schedule (including recommended replacement periods and shelf lives). Simple maintenance can be carried out by the trained wearer, but more intricate repairs should only be done by specialists.
Make sure suitable replacement PPE is always readily available.
CE marking (for
Ensure any PPE you buy is ‘CE’ marked and complies with the requirements of the Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002. The CE marking signifies that the
PPE satisfies certain basic safety requirements and in some cases will have been tested and certified by an independent body.
Key points to remember
Are there ways (other than PPE) in which the risk can be adequately controlled, eg engineering controls? If not, check that:
- PPE is provided;
- it offers adequate protection for its intended use;
- those using it are adequately trained in its safe use;
- it is properly maintained and any defects are reported;
- it is returned to its proper storage after use.
Rabu, 18 Juli 2007
6 Langkah dalam melaksanakan Program Ergonomi ditempat Kerja adalah
- Management Commitment
Management sebagai pengambil keputusan harus memiliki komitmen dalam mendukung terlaksananya program Ergonomi dengan menyediakan segala kebutuhan dalam menerapkan program tersebut. Anda juga harus dapat menyakinkan ke managemen tentang betapa pentingnya program ini dilakukan.
Contoh: Kebijakan Perusahaan; Membuat Prosedur; Membuat proposal tentang program ergonomi.
- Hazard Information & Reporting
Anda harus membuat system yang mempermudah pekerja dalam pelaporkan adanya tanda atau gejala MSD, ini berguna untuk melakukan respon yang tepat dan cepat.
Contoh: Pengembangan sistem database antara Medical Operator (RS/Clinic Perusahaan dengan SHE personal (Industrial Hygiene). Beberapa software yang bisa dipergunakan adalah Microsoft Access; Medgate; Ellipse; dsb
Setelah informasi mengenai MSD didapat/dilaporkan maka selanjutnya dilakukan analisa mengenai permasalahan tersebut untuk mengetahui faktor resiko ergonomi yang dapat menimbulkan terjadinya MSD. Ini bisa dilakukan dengan membuat hierarki control
Contoh: dengan melakukan JHA (Job Hazard Analysis)
Kemungkinan Bahaya / Deskripsi Event
Antisipasi / Tindakan Perbaikan
Selain kita membuat materi training secara general (sesuai dengan bahaya umum di suatu lokasi kerja/perusahaan) diperlukan juga “Area Specific Hazard Training” maksudnya dengan memberikan materi yang lebih detail kepada pekerja. (misalnya yang di area kerjanya memiliki resiko terjadinya MSD dilakukan training ergonomic)
Contoh: Annual refresher training untuk semua pekerja, Spesific hazard Training untuk pekerja diarea tertentu, dsb
- MSD Management
Anda harus merespon segera terhadap kondisi pekerja yang beresiko MSD untuk mencegah kondisi mereka semakin buruk. Berikan mereka akses yang mudah ke “health care professional” untuk melakukan konsultasi dan mendapatkan rekomendasi yang tepat.
Contoh: Adanya dokter perusahan (Occupational Health Doctor), harus dipastikan bahwa dokter yang bersangkutan sudah berpengalaman dalam permasalahan kesehatan di lingkungan kerja, permasalahan ini pernah dialami penulis ketika dokter OH-nya sangat kesulitan memberikan rekomendasi karena kurangnya informasi tentang kesehatan kerja.
- Program Evaluation.
Perlunya dilakukan evaluasi secara periodik terhadap program ergonomik paling sedikit 3 tahun sekali. Ini berguna untuk menyakinkan bahwa program yang telah dibuat sesuai dengan kebutuhan perkembangan perusahaan.
Contoh: Review Prosedur secara berkala
*MSD =Musculoskeletal Disorder